Styria - A historical outline
Graz is a Unesco City of Design.
Graz is the culinary capital and is thus one of the most enjoyable regions in Austria (an initiative of Agrarmarkt Austria and the Ministry of Life).
Since the 1 May and the new member states of the EU, Styria moves (again) from the geographic outskirts into the centre of Europe.
Graz is the only cultural capital of Europe.
The old town of Graz is named a UNESCO World Heritage site.
After the 1st World War, Styria loses 1/3 of its land area, the so-called Untersteiermark [Lower Styria] becomes part of the newly founded SHS state of Yugoslavia. Due to the disintegration of the Habsburg Empire, Styria, once the "Gate to the Southeast", is placed in a peripheral position.
Construction of the southern railway line over the Semmering (the 1st high mountain railway in the world, Carl Ritter von Ghega). The railway section is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Brisk construction in the country and in Graz (technical university, opera house, Karl-Franzens University, railway station, state hospital). Major scientists and artists settle. In the first half of the century, Archduke John of Austria set decisive and lasting impulses for the development of science, culture and economy in Styria.
Napoleon devastates Upper Styria in the coalition wars. The capture of Graz, however, fails. The Graz residents bravely withstand the 3-week siege. However, Napoleon calls for the razing of the castle complex on the Schlossberg [castle hill]; the clock tower, the landmark of the state capital, is bought by the citizens and is preserved.
The Habsburg duke Ferdinand becomes emperor of the German Empire and the entire court moves with him to Vienna. Graz loses its importance as a residential city.
Duke Charles II of Inner Austria has the famous white horses settle in Lower Styrian Lipica (today Slovenia), the home of the Lipizzaners and the Viennese Spanish Riding School. (In 1920 after the loss of Lower Styria, the horses are brought to western Styrian Piber, where they still have their home at the federal stud farm.)
First heyday of the city of Graz and Styria under the Habsburg Duke Frederick V (from 1452 Emperor Frederick III - the last emperor crowned in Rome). His favourite residence is Graz, which is experiencing a lively building boom and its height as an imperial residence. The largest economic boom in Styria.
Division of the Habsburg Empire. From now on, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gorizia, Trieste, Istria and the Windic March belong to Inner Austria. So shall stay this way until 1919. Graz develops into the cultural and intellectual centre of Inner Austria.
The duchy of Styria, together with the duchy of Austria, go to the royal house of Habsburg. In the course of the Habsburg distributions of estate, Styria became the central part of Inner Austria (with the residence in Graz).
The dukes of Austria from the dynasty of the Babenbergs become dukes of Styria in 1192 (until 1246) based on an oral inheritance agreement (documented in the Georgenberg Pact).
Styria is elevated to an independent duchy.
Styria is mentioned by name for the first time and Graz ("Gracz") is mentioned for the first time in 1128/29.
8th century - 955
Constant invasions from Hungary, then integration into the Kingdom of the Franks.
6th - 8th century
Slavic tribes settle the area of present day Styria, only towards the end of the 8th century does the Charlemagne settle here. However, the Slavic element is still preserved in the language usage.
15 BC - 70 BC
The area of Styria (Kingdom of Noricum) is peacefully annexed into the Roman Empire. Thermal springs such as Bad Gleichenberg or Bad Mitterndorf are well-known already from Roman times.